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History7 Lesson 40 Essay

Alfred the Great ruled from 871 to 899 and was the English Monarch. By the age of four, Alfred was anointed king by the pope in Rome. That seemed very odd because Alfred had three brothers who were older than him. But over time, Alfred’s older brothers died and he became king. Alfred’s reign got off to a very shaky start as the Danes invaded Wessex. 

This was before Canute, when the Danes were still very strong in North Umbria. Alfred eventually defeated the Danes in battle. The Danish king, Gurthrum converted to Christianity at the peace treaty which strengthened ties between the two territories. In 886, Alfred marched on London and reclaimed the Danish territories. He unified Southern England.  

In 936, Otto I became Duke of Saxony and king of Germany. He quickly united the other dukes and made him his vassals. Despite threats to his own life, Otto remained in control and asserted his power as king. In 951, Otto heard of another way he could increase his kingdom. He rescued the widowed queen of Italy, Adelaide, from her oppressors and then crowned himself king. In 955, Otto was invaded by the Magyars. 

The Magyars were thoroughly defeated, but three important people of Otto’s family were killed, including his heir. Otto named his young son as the new heir. The defeat of the Magyars let Christianity spread deeper into Eastern Europe. Pope John XII got into some trouble and much like the other Popes and called on the strongest ruler in Europe to help him. Otto said he would help him as long as if he crowned him Holy Roman Emperor. Otto destroyed the rebellion of the Papal states and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor on 962.  

In 1054, matters came to a head, and the church was split between east and west. Because of the invasions in the Balkan, the two were already somewhat separated. The two different churches spoke different languages so it was difficult to communicate. Michael Cerularius instigated the schism by trying to shut down the Latin church. Pope Leo IX, countered this by sending one of his cardinals to insist that Constantinople submit to Rome. 

Cerularius, head of the Eastern church, refused to do so. Both church leaders excommunicated each other in reaction to that confrontation. The schism didn’t just occur because of two tempered church leaders. There were a lot of disagreements that led to it. One was in church government. The west saw the pope as the last Apostolic see while the east saw the Pope as first among the equals. The Pope was free to run the church in the west but his position wasn’t supposed to govern the church in the east. 

The English nation was ruled by the Saxons, Danes, Angles, and Romans through the early middle ages. It was not until 1066 that a major European power added England to its domain. William of Normandy made such an attempt at the Battle of Hastings. The Battle of Hastings lasted one day. It was fought between King Harold of England and William of Normandy. He earned the name, William the Conqueror after his successful invasion. 

King Edward of England died without a clear heir. Harold Godwinson, the Earl of Wessex, was elected to take up the position. William of Normandy was furious, he thought he had more right to the throne than Harold. William immediately began rounding up an army. At the same time William was moving to invade England, Harald of Norway was also invading from the North. King Harolds Saxons met King Haralds Norwegians at the Battle of Stamford Bridge. It was a very gruesome battle and it marked the end of the Viking Age. 

History7 Lesson 35 Essay

The Vikings were a Germanic tribe. They originated from Scandinavia, specifically Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Over a period of about 300 years, the Vikings suddenly spread out and settles over Europe and Asia. They are best known as violent and bloodthirsty because of their habits of plundering and raiding villages. Why the Vikings originally left Scandinavia is unclear. It was likely caused by overpopulation or a thirst for war. 

The first recorded Viking raid was in England in the year, 787. Several Viking ships pulled into Portland Bay and were mistaken for merchants. When an agent for the king tried to tax their ships, they murdered him for his trouble, this wasn’t planned. The first planned attack was at a Monastery on the island of Lindisfarne. The monks were killed, left to be drowned, or taken as slaves. 

The word Vikings means Seamen or expeditions. Those two words are the best describing words of what people remember the Vikings to be. The most thought of item when thinking of Vikings is probably their ships. They had two types of ships, long ships and knarrs. Long ships were powered by the wind or oars and were the same front and back. Knarrs were merchant ships and had deeper and wider hulls than long ships. 

They Vikings invented their own alphabets, as evidence, runestones. The stones usually told the purpose of the stone, who had erected it, and the relation of the Raiser and the deceased. The Vikings started as a Pagan culture. They worshipped a pantheon of different gods and goddesses. The three most notable ones were Odin, Thor, and Freya. From these names come Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday. 

Erik the Red was born in Norway, but after his father was banished, his family moved to Iceland. Erik grew up, built a farm, got married, and established a family. He was a little too much like his father however. He was banished from Iceland for a few years due to a brawl that ended in manslaughter. It is at this time that legends claim that he discovered Greenland. He established the first colony, and after his exile, he returned with incredible stories of the land he found. He knew Greenland wasn’t very attractive so he made up wonderful stories to bring in new settlers. He was successful in convincing a large number of people to move to Greenland. Two colonies were established on the west and east coast of the island. While Erik colonized Greenland, he is best remembered as the father of his son, Leif. 

Leif Ericson became Erik’s greatest legacy to the Viking people. Leif, who was also known as Leif the Lucky, was born in Greenland. He was a handsome man and was considered strong and wise. He traveled to Norway when he came of age and that is where he converted to Christianity. He decided it was his calling to go back to Greenland and convert the settlers there. He asked a priest to accompany him on the trip. The ship, however, was blown way off course and they landed in North America. Leif named it Vinland, and the small settlement he created there, Vinland. He eventually made it back to Greenland and began spreading Christianity to everyone there. He converted his mother, who built a church, but Erik stubbornly refused. He returned to Vinland to build a permanent settlement there. He stayed there through winter and spring then returned to Greenland with grapes and a load of timber. This return journey is where he got the title, “the Lucky” because he rescued an Icelandic castaway and his crew. 

Canute the Great was one of the great early kings of England. He wasn’t actually Anglo-Saxon, but came from Slavic and Danish ancestors. At his peak Canute was king of Denmark, England, Norway, and parts of Sweden. Canute was born to a Danish prince, and was the grandson of the first Scandinavian king converted to Christianity. Canute’s older brother, Harald, was the crown prince and became king in 1014. Canute left for England to try to make a name for himself, traveling with ships full of soldiers. He led Vikings from all over Scandinavia as they fought for 14 months against England’s king, Edmund Ironsides. 

Canute landed in Wessex and headed north in 1016. He besieged London as well, and eventually forced Edmund to work out a treaty with him. When Edmund died three weeks after that, Canute became king of all of England. Emma of Normandy married Canute which strengthened his bond on his claim of the throne of England. He was wary of being overthrown and killed any Saxon who had a claim on the throne. His son Harthacnut was designated as the heir of the throne. He was overthrown in Norway after imposing taxes. He died in 1035 and was buried in Winchester. 

History7 Lesson 30 Essay

The Goths were a tribe of people who immigrated from Scandinavia to the Middle East. They split into two groups going east and west. The eastern tribe became the Ostrogoths and the western tribe became the Visigoths. The Battle of Adrianople in 378 was fought in Northern Greece as the Visigoths began their march to Rome. Rome had already been weakened but the siege still shook the empire. The Romans were crushed by Alaric 1, the most famous Visigoth ruler who ruled from 365 to 410. The Visigoths were eventually pressured by the Frank’s to move from Italy to Iberia in the early 400’s. The Muslim’s eventually fought the Visigoths for the Iberian Peninsula, and in 718, they defeated them. That marked the end of the Visigoths. Their culture developed from a Pagan religion to Christianity. 

The Lombard’s are another Germanic tribe from Scandinavia. They Ruled Italy for about 200 years, from 568 to 774. By the 5th Century, they established their kingdom in Italy, known as Regnum Italicum. The first important city they captured was Forum Lulii in 569, followed by Milan in the same year. Pavia became the capital of their kingdom. The kingdom was organized into a series of Duchies controlled by Dukes. The kingdom wasn’t centralized and thus, very weak. The last Lombard king was Desiderius. The Pope and Charlemagne joined forces in 774 to rid the Lombard’s of Italy, turning the country into Papal states. The Lombard’s in Southern Italy remained independent. 

The first united ruler of France was King Clovis. Over time, the Merovingian kings were increasingly lazy rulers. The work of the government was rarely carried out by the king. Instead there was the Mayor of the Palace. The mayor would make wars, lead armies, raise money, and carry out government decisions. The mayor was basically the active king, while the real king was more like a figurehead. One of those mayors was Pepin. He enjoyed and abused his privileges. Pepin had an illegitimate son named Charles. After his death in 714 his wife tried to take over the position, even imprisoning her son.  

Charles escaped from prison and began organizing support from the nobles. He was called to be the leader of an army when an outside band of Franks attacked. This was the very first battle he would use. Despite having led a magnificent battle, he realized he didn’t have enough men and retreated from the battle field. Charles retaliated by beating his opponents shortly after in the battle of Amblive. He won because he appeared where his enemy least expected, attacked when they least expected, and attacked how they least expected. 

Charles Martel began a new dynasty known as the Carolingian Dynasty. Charlemagne was born in modern day Belgium. He was named Carolus or Charles at birth after his grandfather, Charles Martel. Later he became known as Charles the Great which, translated, means Charlemagne. He became co-ruler at the age of 26, in 768. He split the empire with his older brother Carloman. He died in 771, leaving Charlemagne as sole ruler.  

His first main job as king was to end an uprising in Aquitaine. He was successful in quieting the revolt. He married a Lombard princess, strengthening relations with the people of Italy. However, a year later, he remarried which weakened those relations. He had nine children with his second wife, Hildegard. Charles fought the Lombard’s to help Pope Adrian1 regain several territories that belong to the Papacy. After a two-year siege, the Lombard capital was captured 

Charlemagne’s coronation in 800 is not the beginning of the empire, but one of the most important turning points. The empire lasted until 888 at the end of the reign of Charles the Fat. Like most medieval kingdoms, having many kings with the same name was a common practice. In 800 AD, the kingdom had about one million square kilometers and about ten to twenty million citizens. Most of the kingdom had been gained by Charles Martel and then added on by leading successors. The kingdom did not remain united under one ruler for long. 

Even just after Charlemagne’s death, Louis the Pious didn’t have a very long reign. Charlemagne’s sons, Charles and Pepin, were made kings in different regions. Charles had Neustria and Louis owned Aquitaine, Pepin ruled Italy. Louis again divided the empire during his final years. Several of his sons even waged wars against him to win to win parts of the kingdom. Lothar became king of Italy and co-emperor, while Pepin had Aquitaine. Louis the German ruled Bavaria and Charles the Bald didn’t get any kingship 

History7 Lesson 25 Essay

Byzantium repelled several Persian attacks around 550 which signaled the beginning of the end for Persia. The Persian empire eventually collapsed in favor of Islam, which took the Middle East by storm. After three years of the peace treaty between Persia and Byzantium, Muhammad was born. He was born in 570 in Mecca near the ancient shrine called Ka’ Ba. Ka’ Ba was thought to have been built by Abraham, whom the Muslims claim to be the father of their religion. 

Muhammad’s father died shortly after his birth and by the time he was six, his mother died as well. He was raised by his uncle who also lived in Mecca. He married a wealthy widow and became a very successful merchant. In 610 at the age of forty, he had his first revelation. The messages said that he was the prophet of a new religion and that he needed to prophecy to the world. Those first proclamations make up the first passages of Qu’ Ran. 

Islam’s god is called Allah which literally translates into god. Muslims are universally monotheistic, and believe Allah created the world. Allah has several prophets who bring his “message” to men. The last of them was Muhammad. Islam has several holy books but the two most important are Qu’ Ran and Hadith.  

There are five pillars of Islam. Shahadah, Salat, Zakat, Fast of Ramadan, and Hajj. Jihad is the Muslim name for a holy war. It can be both outward and inner in the life of a Muslim. The struggle to complete the pillars of Islam is an inner struggle. 

After Muhammad, the religion was carried on by a series of elected leaders. The first four Caliphs after Muhammad were considered the Rashidun Dynasty. All four were elected from the leaders of Islam. The first Caliph was named Abu Bakr. He helped consolidate the Quran into one solid book. The second Caliph was Umar. He was assassinated in 644. The third Caliph was Uthman. He dealt with revolts near the end of his reign. The fourth Caliph was Ali. He was the first male convert to Islam. 

The two parties caused so much disruption that Ali could not keep the government in control. Ali was eventually assassinated and was succeeded by a corrupt Caliph starting the Umayyad Dynasty. The two parties separated and became known as sects. There are actually three sects in Islam but the first two are more well-known than the third. There are the Sunni, Shia, and the Sufi. 

The expansion of Islam happened in five key stages. The first four Caliphs made up the Rashidun Dynasty. This was a part of the first stage. Also a part of the first stage was the Umayyad Dynasty. The Umayyad rulers came immediately after the Rashidun’s. The Umayyad rulers ruled the empire at its largest point.  

The Battle of Tours represents the end of Muslim conquest in the Middle East. It took place in between the French cities of, Tour, and Poitiers. The Franks were successful and spread the religion of Islam in that direction. The Muslims were eventually thrown out of Iberia altogether sometime later. 

History7 Lesson 20 Essay

Before Rome was an empire it was a Republic. By 264 BC Rome was already the most powerful state in the Mediterranean. The Republic was replaced by the Roman Empire in 40 BC. Julius Caesar declared himself to be a perpetual dictator over the senate in 44 BC, but was assassinated by the other Senators. By 27 BC, the senate had changed its mind and declared Octavian to be Emperor, or Augustus. 

The first 200 years of the Empire was unprecedented peace which is known as the Pax Romana. Conquests of other surrounding regions continued during this time as Rome grew more powerful. The Roman Empire reached its strongest around 200 AD. Some of the Emperor’s during that time were good rulers but some were cruel and power hungry. Despite persecution from some Emperors, Christianity spread rapidly across the Empire. 

Jesus was born in 3 AD and crucified in 33 AD. After the resurrection, The Apostle’s continued their ministry and spread the gospel. Christianity spread rapidly across the first century AD despite persecution from Nero and other emperors. By the third century, Christianity had become a dominant religion in the Roman Empire. It wasn’t until 312 AD that persecution of Christians had officially stopped. 

One feature of the early church was Monasticism. The first recorded monk was St. Anthony. The Monastic lifestyle became a widespread ideal, and a communal system where monks could support each other. The study of the Church Fathers is called Patristics. Clement, Polycarp and Ignatius were the 3 Apostolic Fathers and were said to have been taught to from the 12 Apostles themselves. 

Polycarp was a Christian Bishop. Polycarp was Martyred. They tried burning him at the stake but when the fire didn’t touch Polycarp’s body they stabbed him. Clement was a Pope. He is considered to be the first Apostolic father. He died in 99 AD. Jerome was a Catholic priest. He is known for his translation of the Bible to Latin and his commentaries on the Gospels. 

The first recorded council was in Acts 15. The debate is over whether converted Gentiles should be circumcised and become Jews. The council decided it wasn’t necessary but did outline several imperatives for new concerts to follow. Similar councils where difficult subjects were addressed and decided on, have been held in the church ever since. Sometimes particularly heretical doctrines are combatted by a creed that is released by the council. 

A creed is an organized succinct way to convey the most crucial truths of what you believe. Well known examples are the Apostles Creed and the Nicene Creed. We don’t have proof that the Apostle’s Creed was written by the Apostle’s, but it did originate around their time. It outlines the basic, undeniably important truths of Christianity, like the existence of the Godhead and Christ’s atoning work for sins. 

History7 Lesson 15 Essay

Before Rome was an empire it was a Republic. By 264 BC Rome was already the most powerful state in the Mediterranean. The Republic was replaced by the Roman Empire in 40 BC. Julius Caesar declared himself to be a perpetual dictator over the senate in 44 BC, but was assassinated by the other Senators. By 27 BC, the senate had changed its mind and declared Octavian to be Emperor, or Augustus. 

The first 200 years of the Empire was unprecedented peace which is known as the Pax Romana. Conquests of other surrounding regions continued during this time as Rome grew more powerful. The Roman Empire reached its strongest around 200 AD. Some of the Emperor’s during that time were good rulers but some were cruel and power hungry. Despite persecution from some Emperors, Christianity spread rapidly across the Empire. 

Jesus was born in 3 AD and crucified in 33 AD. After the resurrection, The Apostle’s continued their ministry and spread the gospel. Christianity spread rapidly across the first century AD despite persecution from Nero and other emperors. By the third century, Christianity had become a dominant religion in the Roman Empire. It wasn’t until 312 AD that persecution of Christians had officially stopped. 

One feature of the early church was Monasticism. The first recorded monk was St. Anthony. The Monastic lifestyle became a widespread ideal, and a communal system where monks could support each other. The study of the Church Fathers is called Patristics. Clement, Polycarp and Ignatius were the 3 Apostolic Fathers and were said to have been taught to from the 12 Apostles themselves. 

Polycarp was a Christian Bishop. Polycarp was Martyred. They tried burning him at the stake but when the fire didn’t touch Polycarp’s body they stabbed him. Clement was a Pope. He is considered to be the first Apostolic father. He died in 99 AD. Jerome was a Catholic priest. He is known for his translation of the Bible to Latin and his commentaries on the Gospels. 

The first recorded council was in Acts 15. The debate is over whether converted Gentiles should be circumcised and become Jews. The council decided it wasn’t necessary but did outline several imperatives for new concerts to follow. Similar councils where difficult subjects were addressed and decided on, have been held in the church ever since. Sometimes particularly heretical doctrines are combatted by a creed that is released by the council. 

A creed is an organized succinct way to convey the most crucial truths of what you believe. Well known examples are the Apostles Creed and the Nicene Creed. We don’t have proof that the Apostle’s Creed was written by the Apostle’s, but it did originate around their time. It outlines the basic, undeniably important truths of Christianity, like the existence of the Godhead and Christ’s atoning work for sins. 

History7 Lesson 10 Essay

One of the civilizations we studied was Ancient America. The oldest American civilization were the Olmecs. They began in 1200 BC and ended in 400 BC. They flourished along Mexico’s Gulf Coast. They are best known today for their giant colossal heads. People today think that they made the colossal heads to represent their rulers because of how large and intricate they are. Fourteen heads so far have been discovered. Ten were found in San Lorenza and four in La Venta. The largest head found yet is located in La Cobata. It is ten feet tall and weighs about 40 tons which equals eighty thousand pounds. Andrzej Wiercinski, who is a philosopher, claims that some of the Olmecs were African. 

Ancient China was one of the oldest and longest lasting civilizations in history. The history of Ancient China can be traced back over 4,000 years. It is located on the eastern part of the continent of Asia, today China is the most populated country in the world. Ancient China contributed for gunpowder, paper, printing, and compasses. Kites were originally used as a way for army signaling. Umbrellas were used as protection from the sun. Ancient China produced silk. The process of making silk was very profitable. They also made the Great Wall of China which can be seen from outer space. They made the Terracotta army as well. The Terracotta Army was built for Qin Shi Huang to protect him in the afterlife. There are about eight thousand soldiers in the Terracotta Army. 

One of the differences between Ancient America and Ancient China is where they are. They are on opposite sides of the earth so if someone from China put a piece of bread on the ground and someone from America did the same thing, they would make an Earth sandwich. Another difference is the culture. Ancient Chinese culture is five thousand years old. Ancient American culture is about three thousand years old. There was also a difference between the religions. The Ancient Chinese cultures were Taoism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. The Ancient Americans were polytheistic, henotheistic, animistic, shamanistic, and pantheistic. 

One of the similarities is that they were both innovative. They both also built temples. They both had governments. 

History7 Lesson 5 Essay

The Greeks had made some important contributions to philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, and medicine. One of the most important things in Ancient Greek philosophy was to think logically and ask questions. Plato, Aristotle, and Socrates are the most famous philosophers of Ancient Greece. 

Socrates’ most contributable part in philosophy was the ability to argue a point very well. The Socratic method is to ask questions to get a conclusion. The ancient Greeks were the very first people to study the sky and understand astronomy. They discovered the Earth was a sphere and it wasn’t flat. They also contributed to geometry through proving their ideas in mathematical terms. The Ancients Greeks sight of medicine included a healthy mind and body. The most important medical figure of Ancient Greece was Hippocrates. He is known as the father of medicine. The Hippocratic Oath is based off of his name. In short, it means doctors will use medicine to help and to not harm. It is used in most medical schools. 

They were known for their sculpture and architecture. The Parthenon is the most famous example of Greek architecture. The Greeks liked to used tall columns and intricate detail in their architecture. 

The Greek culture influenced others like Rome. The Greek civilization was established in the 8th Century BC. Greece is located in Europe, along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Greece helped other civilizations become successful. Greece’s capital is Athens. The Dorians settled in Greece in 1200 BC. Their arrival marked the beginning of the Dark Ages which lasted about 400 years. Athens is Greece’s capital. 

A Little Bit About Me

Hi! My name is Abigail and this is a blog for my essays. I am 13 and I’m taking English7, History7, and Science7. I do Saxon 7-8 grade math. I do Musical Theatre as well. (From a different place)

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